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Which Year Did 5G installation Started Early in 2019 several companies began to roll out their new 5G cellular services in major cities across the US. These quiet roll outs served as test beds for a host of new 5g cell phones, as well as ways to stress test the technology itself. And as happens withRead more
Early in 2019 several companies began to roll
out their new 5G cellular services in major
cities across the US.
These quiet roll outs served as test beds
for a host of new 5g cell phones, as well
as ways to stress test the technology itself.
And as happens with any new technology, some people immediately started freaking out and the internet was there to happily help them
run wild with rumors and conspiracy theories
about the dangers of 5g.
To start, fear of new technologies is nothing
new, especially when they play an immediate
impact in our day to day life.
In the late 1800s cities around the world
began to install electric street lighting.
While many cities already enjoyed the benefit
of gas lamps, these were expensive to maintain, generally only covered small areas of major cities, and actually did have an element of danger since gas is, you know, explosive.
Electric lamps however were cheap, and could
all be turned on and off with the switch of
a single button.
No longer would lamp lighters need to spend
hours each evening going around the city lighting individual lamps one by one.
The new electric light technology promised
to make our growing cities well lit and keep
people safe while out at night- and not just
in the rich neighbourhoods were gas lighting
While street lights are ubiquitous across
any modern nation, the plan to string up electric street lighting across entire cities was met by a wave of fear from the population.
Many feared the health hazards of lighting
up a city at night, as it would throw off
people’s ability to tell night from day and
thus ruin sleep cycles.
Massive health hazards were predicted, as
millions of people had their sleep schedules
turned on their heads.
It was feared a wave of madness would overtake humanity.
But, no such thing happened and those early
fear mongers would likely have a hay day with
our modern twenty-four-seven lifestyles.
Religious figures got in on the outrage too,
warning that lighting up entire cities would
violate God’s natural laws.
That is because God had clearly made a difference between night and day, and if we were to do away with that divinely-inspired segregation of light and dark then… who knows, demons may burst forth from the mouth of hell, cats and dogs would become best friends and up would become down.
The Vatican feared offending God’s own sleep
cycle so much that it initially banned gas
lights in the 1830s.
It might be tempting to laugh at the ignorance
of zealots and the ignorant masses of the
1800s, but you’d be doing so at the risk of
being laughed at yourself by future generations.
Today we are afraid of everything from chemtrails to GMO foods, despite common sense and decades worth of scientific studies.
You’re free to laugh at the ignorance of 1800
citizens who believed electric lights would
drive everyone insane, as long as you don’t
mind that in two hundred years you’ll be laughed at for being afraid of vaccines- if everyone hasn’t died to super-measles by then.
But of all the fears we have about our modern
world, the latest to hit the internet and
rumor mills around the world are fears over
5g cellular service.
5G is simply another evolution in wireless
information transfer technology.
5G literally means fifth generation, but as
opposed to previous generations 5g operates
at much higher frequencies than previously
The higher frequencies allow 5g service to
deliver greater packets of data, with the
potential estimated to be up to ten gigabytes
This could dramatically change our wireless
world and promises to make everything from
augmented and virtual reality to smart autonomous vehicles a fixture of our lives.
Unfortunately though as you increase the frequency of a carrier wave, its range is dramatically decreased as is its ability to penetrate through solid objects like walls.
This is why the military very often uses extremely low frequency bandwidths to transmit messages, most famously with its fleet of nuclear submarines who use a global system of extreme low frequency transmitters to communicate with its boats from anywhere in the world.
Mention high frequency outside of a science
classroom though and the public very quickly
begins to soil their collective pantaloons.
On one hand the fears are justified, after
all history is full of examples of poorly
understood technologies being marketed to
an ignorant public- it wasn’t too long ago
that ionizing radiation was promised as a
cure-all for, well everything.
You could find radioactive elements in everything from makeup powders to breakfast cereals, all with the promise that the ionizing radiation would boost your vigour and refresh your health!
Of course it did pretty much the opposite,
and it didn’t take long for people to figure
Yet today, unlike yesteryear, we have international systems of scientific checks and balances which work very well to stamp out bias and scientific deception.
While a massive conspiracy to cook everyone’s
brains with cell phones is not entirely impossible, it would be an extremely difficult scheme to sneak pass the thousands of watchdog agencies all connected by the global internet.
Plus it doesn’t pass the first point of failure for any conspiracy theory: common sense.
If cell phone companies purposefully developed a product that irradiated its consumers, those
same companies would
1 – be buried under mountains
of lawsuits, and
2 – not have consumers anymore
when people flat-out refused to use cell phones out of fear.
Fears over cell phone radiation are nothing
new though, and have plagued the devices ever since their mainstream adoption in the 1990s.
All matter of products have been marketed
promising to protect you from the risk of
electromagnetic radiation from your evil cell
phone, most of which were nothing more than
snake oil that did little if anything to block
the radio frequencies emitted by your cell
Ongoing public fears have prompted scientific
study after scientific study, and yet no valid
study has yet to prove that normal cell phone
use poses a real risk to humans.
In fact, back when killing people with radio
waves was something the Japanese were actually trying to do during World War II, the best they managed with extremely powerful modified radar dishes was to kill a rabbit at a distance of a few dozen feet- and even then only after ten minutes and using an antenna several meters across and locking the rabbit up in a cage where it couldn’t move.
After much careful scientific study by research staff they were able to conclude that your phone is in fact, far smaller than a 3-meter wide antenna and you are far larger than a rabbit.
Thanks to the United States and the Soviet
Union doing their darned best to kill every
human on planet earth for forty years though,
we have an understandable aversion to anything with the word radiation in it.
This explains why people are so concerned
over cell phones, which blast out electromagnetic radiation into their environment.
Coupled with the fact that you typically then
put these devices up to your head in order
to speak into them, we can see where the concerns over radiation affecting people’s brains come from.
It’s important to understand the differences
between the different types of radiation though.
The first, and the most feared, is ionizing
radiation, which is one of the types of radiation
emitted by a nuclear explosion.
This is the same stuff that comic books said
would turn us into super-powered Spidermen,
except unless your preferred superpower is
the ability to get cancer, then no it won’t.
Ionizing radiation is harmful to living beings
because of the energy in its extremely short
wavelength and high frequency waves, which
can knock electrons loose from atoms and seriously damage the molecules inside your body.
Non-ionizing radiation on the other hand doesn’t carry enough energy to break molecular bonds, and the best that they can do is cause heating by vibrating molecules at high speeds.
This is exactly how your microwave works-
it emits microwave radiation with high enough
energy to vibrate water molecules in your
food, generating heat which warms the food.
But with 5g using wavelengths similar to those
in a microwave, how in the world could our
The answer to that question has to do with
power- a microwave can emit anywhere between 500 and 1000 watts of power, which actually is enough to kill, if you were to crawl inside a giant microwave and turn on the popcorn setting that is.
It also emits this much energy continuously,
while a cell phone only emits a few watts
of power and even this comes in short bursts.
If you don’t believe physics though, then
you can believe the tests done on live animals
to see how dangerous the electromagnetic radiation given off by the frequencies used by cell phones are.
One ten year study tracked colonies of mice
and rats which had their full bodies exposed
to radio frequencies used by 2g and 3g cell
The test subjects were exposed for 18 hours
a day in intervals of ten minutes on and ten
minutes off, starting before they were even
born while inside their mothers and lasting
throughout the normal course of their lives.
The power level of the RF radiation used ranged from above to slightly below permitted levels for cellular devices, and after a decade the study found no direct correlation between
RF radiation and ill health effects.
Given the far less exposure humans are subjected to and the physical properties of 5g’s very high frequency waves, scientists have expressed little fear that 5g will be dangerous.
For starters the waves are so poor at propagating through objects and even just empty air that companies are forced to build mini-towers every city block or so, and in consumer tests of 5g devices earlier this year most lost service after getting only a few hundred feet away from them.
This doesn’t bode well for 5g waves trying
to penetrate through the layers of your skin
and skull in order to get to your defenseless
brain and start cooking it.
Nevertheless, we fully expect that fear mongering and rumors will continue to spread as 5g rolls out around the world, and we also don’t expect to be disappointed by the countless snake oil salesman and their crazy inventions the promise will protect you from the evil cell phone radiation.
Of course I know that you know that this
is exactly what i’d say if I were in fact
part of a major conspiracy and in the pocket
of all of the major cell phone carriers and
manufacturers, which is why I encourage you
to do your own research into the difference
between ionizing and non-ionizing radiation.
And as always if you enjoyed this article don’t
forget to Share, and sign up for more
[caption id="attachment_2633" align="alignnone" width="300"] Image Source (national Geographic)[/caption] here's what would happen if the Moon fell to Earth. The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite, and the largest object to brighten our night sky. It's the first and only place beyond Earth whereRead more
Image Source (national Geographic)
here’s what would happen if the Moon fell to Earth.
The Moon is Earth’s only natural satellite,
and the largest object to brighten our night sky.
It’s the first and only place beyond Earth where humans have set foot.
The Moon’s gravitational pull causes tides on Earth.
Tides that might have been the encouragement
for life in our oceans to move on land.
This pull also keeps Earth from wobbling on its axis, making our climate relatively stable.
In short, the Moon makes Earth a more livable place.
What if it suddenly speed up, and started driving in Earth’s direction?
The Moon’s plan to destroy Earth by bumping into it would break into pieces the moment it reaches the Roche limit.
The Moon itself would shatter, never making it to Earth’s surface.
And that’s going to look very impressive!
In celestial mechanics,
it is the point at which the gravity holding a satellite together is weaker than the tidal
forces trying to pull it apart.
In other words, the Moon can only get as close as 18,470 km (11,470 miles) away from our planet,
before – BOOM!
The tidal forces would tear it apart.
All the footprints and flags we’ve left on the Moon, all of its craters and valleys would scatter to form a breathtaking ring of
debris above Earth’s equator.
Making Earth the second planet in the solar system, after Saturn, to have this striking ring of beauty. The difference being that our rings wouldn’t last long.
The chunks of our former satellite, the Moon, would rain down on Earth.
It would be as if hundreds of thousands of asteroids were falling down on us and wiping out entire cities in the process.
Once the Moon began its trajectory towards the planet, it would increase the tidal impact it has on us.
By the time it hit the Roche limit, it would be causing tides as high as 7,600 meters (30,000 feet).
Our world would be devastated by an army of tsunamis – ten times a day.
But for a short time, hardcore surfers would enjoy riding some tasty waves.
On the other hand, this might become a solution to global warming.
With the Moon coming closer, Earth’s rotation would speed up.
Our days would become shorter and shorter.
Global temperatures would go down, and no one would worry about climate change anymore.
Unless asteroids burned the Earth to a crisp.
Then there would be no one to worry about anything.
I really wouldn’t worry about it anyway.
In fact, the Moon is drifting away from us at the rate of 4 cm (1.5 inches) per year.
So it’s very unlikely we’ll get to see those
pretty, Saturn-like rings here on Earth.
What if all the stars disappeared tomorrow? Together with all the planets, solar systems and galaxies? here's what would happen if the Universe ended tomorrow. Some 50 million years from now, the Martian moon Phobos will slam into Mars and shatter to pieces. In 100 million years, Earth will likely gRead more
here’s what would happen if the Universe ended tomorrow.
Some 50 million years from now, the Martian moon Phobos will slam into Mars and shatter to pieces.
In 100 million years, Earth will likely get hit by an asteroid the size of the one that caused all the dinosaurs to go extinct.
In about 1.5 billion years, the Sun will become so luminous, that it will force the habitable
zone to move outwards, leaving what’s left of Earth to get crispy.
Everything will eventually come to an end.
Even our almost 14-billion-year old Universe.
Don’t get too comfy.
The end of the Universe would mean the end of everything in it.
Two trillion galaxies that we can observe from Earth, filled with a tremendous
amount of everything from enormous gas giants to weird shaped asteroids.
Everything would be gone, including you and
whoever else is out there.
But your last moments could be very different
depending on how the Universe shut down.
Here are three ways it might happen.
The Universe is expanding.
Galaxies are moving away from each other at an ever-increasing rate, despite the attempts of gravity to pull them back together.
That’s because a theoretical force called dark energy is opposing the force of gravity.
If one day, this dark energy pulled a little too hard, the pieces of raw material needed for star formation would become too far away from each other.
All the existing stars would eventually run out of fuel, and there would be no new ones to replace them.
It would get very dark and very cold.
Once the temperature reached absolute zero, nothing would be able to move, not a single atom.
The Universe would become the most boring, static place, and would probably remain an endless void forever.
I bet you were hoping for a more spectacular ending to this story.
If the dark energy became so intense that it was able to nullify the force of gravity altogether, it would rip the Universe apart.
It would start with the galaxies, tearing them down one by one.
Black holes would be next to disintegrate, followed by stars, planets, asteroids…
As the expansion of the Universe ramped up,
every form of matter would collapse on itself
and decay into radiation.
That, of course, includes you.
The Universe would end up full of single particles.
If the force of gravity fought back
hard enough to overthrow the dark energy,
the Universe would stop expanding.
It would shrink back instead.
Planets would collide with other planets.
The stars would slam into each other.
Galaxies would merge together.
Earth wouldn’t be able to dodge all the space matter for too long.
The Universe would compress into a very dense singularity, just the way it was before the
Big Bang began spewing out galaxies.
From that singularity, it could
make a fresh cosmic start:
with new planets, new stars, new life forms.
One way or another, the Universe and everything in it will end.
But it won’t happen in just one day. We still have time to become a more advanced civilization, and maybe even find a cozy
exoplanet to settle on.
[caption id="attachment_2615" align="alignnone" width="300"] Solar panel[/caption] The Earth intercepts a lot of solar power: 173 thousand terawatts. That's ten thousand times more power than the planet's population uses. So is it possible that one day the world could be completely reliant on solarRead more
The Earth intercepts a lot of solar power:
173 thousand terawatts.
That’s ten thousand times more power
than the planet’s population uses.
To answer that question,
we first need to examine how solar panels
convert solar energy to electrical energy.
Solar panels are made up of smaller units
called solar cells.
The most common solar cells are made from silicon, a semiconductor that is the second
most abundant element on Earth.
In a solar cell, crystalline silicon is sandwiched
between conductive layers.
Each silicon atom is connected to its neighbors by four strong bonds, which keep the electrons in place so no current can flow.
Here’s the key: a silicon solar cell uses
two different layers of silicon.
An n-type silicon has extra electrons,
and p-type silicon has extra spaces for electrons, called holes.
Where the two types of silicon meet, electrons can wander across the p/n junction,
leaving a positive charge on one side
and creating negative charge on the other.
You can think of light as the flow of tiny particles called photons, shooting out from the Sun.
When one of these photons strikes
the silicon cell with enough energy, it can knock an electron from its bond,
leaving a hole.
The negatively charged electron and
location of the positively charged hole
are now free to move around.
But because of the electric field at the p/n junction, they’ll only go one way.
The electron is drawn to the n-side,
while the hole is drawn to the p-side.
The mobile electrons are collected by thin metal fingers at the top of the cell.
From there, they flow through an external circuit, doing electrical work, like powering a lightbulb, before returning through the conductive
aluminum sheet on the back.
Each silicon cell only puts out half a volt, but you can string them together in modules to get more power.
Twelve photovoltaic cells are enough
to charge a cellphone,
while it takes many modules
to power an entire house.
Electrons are the only moving parts
in a solar cell, and they all go back where they came from.
There’s nothing to get worn out
or used up, so solar cells can last for decades.
There are political factors at play,
not to mention businesses that lobby
to maintain the status quo.
But for now, let’s focus on the physical
and logistical challenges,
and the most obvious of those is that solar energy is unevenly distributed across the planet.
Some areas are sunnier than others.
It’s also inconsistent.
Less solar energy is available
on cloudy days or at night.
So a total reliance would require
efficient ways to get electricity from sunny spots to cloudy ones,
and effective storage of energy.
The efficiency of the cell itself
is a challenge, too.
If sunlight is reflected instead of absorbed,
or if dislodged electrons fall back into
a hole before going through the circuit, that photon’s energy is lost.
The most efficient solar cell yet still only converts 46% of the available sunlight to electricity, and most commercial systems are currently 15-20% efficient.
In spite of these limitations, it actually would be possible to power the entire world
with today’s solar technology.
We’d need the funding to build the infrastructure and a good deal of space.
Estimates range from tens to hundreds of thousands of square miles,
which seems like a lot, but the Sahara Desert alone is over 3 million square miles in area.
Meanwhile, solar cells are getting
better, cheaper and are competing
with electricity from the grid.
And innovations, like floating solar farms,
may change the landscape entirely.
Thought experiments aside, there’s the fact
that over a billion people don’t have access
to a reliable electric grid, especially in developing countries, many of which are sunny.
So in places like that, solar energy is already much cheaper and safer than available alternatives,
For say, Finland or Seattle, though,
effective solar energy
may still be a little way off.
We can build really big things in space. Okay, not that big - yet. But we've packed the Earth's lower orbit with about 5,000 satellites - some still functioning and some not. What if we could build a bigger, brighter satellite, and put it into Earth's lower orbit? Something that would reflect so mucRead more
We can build really big things in space.
Okay, not that big – yet.
But we’ve packed the Earth’s lower orbit
with about 5,000 satellites –
some still functioning and some not.
What if we could build a bigger,
brighter satellite, and put it into Earth’s lower orbit? Something that would reflect
so much sunlight that we’d never have to
turn our lights on again.
The largest satellite we’ve put into lower orbit,
the International Space Station, is as long as a football field.
We assembled it in pieces in several launches,
and now it’s revolving around the Earth
some 400 km (250 mi) above us.
Most of the Earth’s satellites in low orbit
are operating just above the ISS.
Some of them are parked
in geostationary orbit, about 35,000 km (22,000 mi) above the Earth’s equator.
The real Moon revolves around us
from a distance of 380,000 km
(236,000 mi) away.
But we don’t need to put our artificial moon that far away.
We’d place it somewhere between
the Earth and the ISS.
That’s a good spot right there.
We’d have to make sure it maintains
a speed of 27,400 km/h (17,000 mph).
Otherwise, it falls back to Earth.
We’d cover its surface with some highly reflective material so that it could bounce the
light from the Sun back at us.
Then, we’d turn off our lights and enjoy bright nights all year long.
If you’re not into falling asleep with the lights on, you’d need to get some very
dark blinds for your bedroom.
Too bad animals wouldn’t have the same option.
This new moon might cause
havoc for nocturnal creatures who rely on moonlight to mate, hunt, or navigate.
Too much light at night could
mess around with your body too,
leading to obesity and a higher
chance of heart disease, diabetes and depression.
The artificial moon would also
obscure the view of the natural sky.
Ground-based telescopes wouldn’t be able to capture images of deep space.
It could result in us giving up on our dreams
to go to distant stars – imprisoning us on Earth forever.
Wait for it…
Some sources have reported
that Chinese space engineers
are already working on it.
Their moon would be not just ten,
but eighty times bigger that the ISS.
It would shine 8 times brighter than the natural Moon,
and it would supposedly save them
$173 million/year in electricity bills.
However, we haven’t seen the actual plans
or a development strategy, so…
don’t be upset if an artificial moon
doesn’t appear in the sky sometime soon.
We still like our natural, beautiful Moon
that we could colonize and
use as a cosmic airport for future space travel.
Well some of us may think that there’s nothing more boring than attending an insurance conference. And we may well be right, but if we look back to see how the industry began, it isn’t as dull as it might first appear. From swashbuckling pirates to a ferocious fire that ravaged the world’s greatestRead more
Well some of us may think that there’s nothing more boring than attending an insurance conference.
And we may well be right, but if we look back to see how the industry began, it isn’t as dull as it might first appear.
From swashbuckling pirates to a ferocious
fire that ravaged the world’s greatest city,
insurance has had a colorful past.
But how do those grey suits who sell insurance
really make money, and how do the inner workings of one of the most complicated fiscal models really work?
If these questions whet your curiosity, then
Well, insurance is a financial vehicle that
helps spread risk.
By taking a risk from an individual, and spreading that risk around a community, the individual is able to go about their personal or business life without crumbling from financial ruin.
In the simplest terms, let’s look at two
One is named Bob and the other Jim.
Bob says to Jim,
I’ll give you ten dollars,
but if I lose my cell phone, you’ll have
to buy me a new one.
If Jim agrees, then that’s insurance right
Insurance companies make money because they evaluate the risk and decide whether it is
worth the gamble.
Jim believes that Bob probably won’t lose
his phone and he’ll therefore be ten dollars
If Jim finds 100 more people who are willing
to give him 10 bucks each to cover their phones, he has 1,000 dollars.
If one of those 100 people loses their phone
and Jim pays 100 dollars as compensation,
he still has 900 bucks.
This insurance idea has been floating around
since the ancient Chinese and the Babylonians
spread their shipping risks.
But it wasn’t until around the 17th century
in London that modern insurance really took
Merchant marine men and traders often hung
out in coffee shops in the business district
of London, and while drinking copious amounts of coffee, the idea of modern day insurance was born.
Lloyds of London, the heart of worldwide insurance, was developed inside one of these coffee houses and here’s how it worked.
First, you have the client.
Say the client has a ship that he is nervous
about losing to pirates offshore, or perhaps
the vessel will be destroyed in bad weather.
The client approaches an insurance broker.
The broker looks at the ship, or pays someone
to look at the ship, and they decide how much
the total value of that ship is worth.
The broker then assesses the risk.
He asks the client where he is traveling to
and what cargo he will be carrying.
With all this information, he draws up an
insurance policy which he shows to the third
person in the chain – the underwriter.
For a cheaper premium, the underwriter may
exclude a few risks.
And for a few more bucks, he may include some extra risks.
Now there are normally lots of underwriters
approached, but one will be the lead, and
the lead underwriter, like Jim, will normally
take the largest proportion of the risk and
sign his name first on the policy document.
He is known as the underwriter, as he writers
his name under the risk on the insurance policy.
The lead underwriter makes the major decisions when it comes to accepting the policy, and will be the main man to agree to any claims on the policy.
Once the terms of the policy are agreed to,
it is made legal, and the client is happy
and the ship sets sail – but not before paying
the insurance premium to the broker, who will
take about 10%, and pass the rest on to the
But what should happen if pirates board the
ship, steal the cargo, and burn it at sea?
Well, the client (if he is still alive, if
not, a representative of the client) will
speak to the insurance broker and the broker
will visit with the lead underwriter and tell
him the bad news.
The rest of the underwriters (there may well
be as many as 20 on a big policy) are told
the news and then the broker must negotiate
the best claim settlement for the client or his or her representatives.
The underwriters pay the money to the broker,
who passes it on to the client, without deducting any cut.
The broker makes his money once the premium is paid, and will help negotiate the best claims for his clients through gentlemanly honor and the prospect of future business.
Now it may not be all bad news for the Underwriter.
If he is wise and not greedy, he may have
reinsured the policy.
Reinsurance puts the underwriter in the position of the client.
The underwriter sells the policy onto another
underwriter or firm of underwriters, while
retaining a share of the premium.
Think back to Jim and his phone insurance.
If Jim resold his 10 dollar phone policy for
9 dollars, rather than the 10 he received,
then he gets to keep a dollar each for each
of his 100 clients, meaning he has 100 dollars
completely risk free.
Similarly, much of the modern day insurance
that flows through Lloyds of London is reinsured out of the building to smaller insurance companies all across the world.
So what starts as a simple agreement between
the client and the broker (or Jim and Bob)
is spread across a business community who
each stand to profit from the premium or take
a cut of any losses.
This is how insurance works – by the spreading of risk over communities.
So that is how maritime insurance was born.
It was developed through the need of ship-owners to carry on in business should they lose everything whilst at sea.
Well around the same time, 1666, the great
fire of London devastated the city where modern day insurance was born, and famous architect Sir Christopher Wren, in his great London redevelopment project in 1667, made sure to include an insurance office in his new plan. Now property insurance is commonplace with most homenowners having a policy in place.
Also medical, life, travel, car, and dental
insurance are all commonly held policies.
Even pet insurance is a major insurance business nowadays.
Over time the business model has evolved.
Modern day insurance companies are fiercely
competitive, which is good for you, the client,
as polices are priced at their lowest possible
Companies now look to write as many polices
as possible to create a financial pool.
They take the premium from thousands of policies, and invest that money in another financial product.
So the insurance underwriter may pay out more
claims than they make in policy premiums.
But they have invested all those premiums in a high interest investment scheme, so they make their money outside of the original insurance
Insurance in this example is a way of creating
cash flow to be used in more lucrative investments.
Thanks for reading, and, as always, don’t
forget to share and sign up.
See you next time!
[caption id="attachment_2530" align="alignnone" width="300"] Venus Surface Hot Heat[/caption] The Earth might not be here forever. A huge solar flare, an asteroid impact, or a local gamma-ray burst - anything could wipe us out for good. If we're looking for some place to escape to, there is one planRead more
Venus Surface Hot Heat
The Earth might not be here forever.
A huge solar flare, an asteroid impact, or
a local gamma-ray burst – anything could wipe us out for good.
If we’re looking for some place to escape to,
there is one planet in our Solar System
that’s somewhat similar to Earth.
Though we don’t know much about it.
Not only are Earth and Venus about the same size, they both have identical interiors
with partially liquid cores, mantles and crusts.
Yet, Venus happens to be the most hostile terrestrial planet in the Solar System.
But what if I told you that you could explore this hot planet without ever setting foot on it?
Venus isn’t a place you’d want to land on.
Thanks to its dense atmosphere and and turtle-like rotation, the surface temperature of Venus stays at 462°C (863.6°F).
The planet’s atmospheric pressure
is 92 times greater than Earth’s.
Because of such high pressure, anything entering the atmosphere of Venus gets immediately crushed before it reaches
the planet’s volcanic surface.
With such extreme atmospheric conditions, it’s too dangerous to attempt a manned landing on Venus.
But we wouldn’t need to go down there.
Above the dense layer of clouds, Venus isn’t that bad.
The atmospheric pressure is similar to Earth’s.
The gravity is slightly lower.
And the temperature reaches 75°C (167°F).
Although that’s a little hot, it’s still workable.
We’d need to start small.
According to NASA’s plan for exploring Venus,
we’d send two spaceships to our destination.
Venus is the closest planet to Earth.
That’s why it would only take 100 days
for the craft to arrive there.
One of the ships would be run by robots.
It would carry a special airship that it would eject into the atmosphere upon arrival.
This airship would start to inflate itself with helium.
Since helium is lighter than air, the airship would float, orbiting about 52 km (32 mi) above the planet.
The second spaceship would have a crew of two people.
It would link up with the airship orbiting Venus.
The crew would have 30 days to make all the environmental assessments.
After that, they’d detach from the airship
and start making their way back to Earth.
The return trip would take about 300 days
due to the Sun’s strong gravitational pull.
But even with that, the complete mission
wouldn’t take longer than 450 days.
After analyzing the information from the first mission, we’d begin to plan our next trip to Venus.
But this time, we’d stay there longer.
The next crew would have a year
to study the planet and its atmosphere.
One of the things they’d be looking
for on Venus would be life.
Scientists think that because microbes on Earth can thrive in acidic conditions surrounded by sulfur, there could be life found in the Venusian atmosphere.
After the end of the second mission, we would start preparing to stay on Venus permanently.
We would begin building cloud cities, where future generations of humans
would live and hopefully continue to explore space and the origins of life in it.
They might even solve the pressure problem.
From there, they would terraform the planet
and settle down on the once hostile Venusian surface.
I'm sure that many of you growing up like me used to spend time dreaming about visiting another planet or another star. You've probably heard the phrase, "born too late, to explore the world and born too early to explore the universe,". which implies that our ancestors explored the unknown parts ofRead more
I’m sure that many of you growing up like me used to spend time dreaming about visiting another planet or another star.
You’ve probably heard the phrase,
“born too late, to explore the world and born too early to explore the universe,”.
which implies that our ancestors explored the unknown parts of Earth while our descendants will be exploring the unknown parts of our universe, leaving us in the 21st century as the awkward middle children with little exploration to accomplish.
But is this really the case?
and could our civilization actually reach out and touch another star during your lifetime?
For reference the nearest other known star closest to our sun is here called
but it’s still 4.25 light-years away from us That doesn’t seem too bad So let’s explore how to get there using current technology.
this probe is the farthest away from earth that a man-made object has ever been so far.
It is currently almost 140 astronomical units away from our sun, meaning that it’s
140 times farther away from the sun than earth is. To have reached this distance,
Voyager utilized gravity assists from both the Jupiter and Saturn to reach a speed of 17 km/s.
But even at this far away distance and at the same speed, it would take voyager another
73,000 years to reach Proxima Centauri.
NASA, however launch another space probe in year 2018 that is the fastest moving object humanity has ever created.
It’s called the
parker solar probe and it will be sent to study the outer corona of the sun.
Utilizing repeated gravity assists from Venus, the probe will enter into an elliptical orbit around the sun and at its closest point to the sun in orbit, the probe will achieve a velocity of an amazing 200 kilometers per second. That’s fast enough to zip around the entire earth at the equator in 3 minutes and 24 seconds. But it’s still only a tiny 0.07% of the speed of light which means that even at that speed it would take the probe well over 7,000 years to reach proxima centauri.
So is there any technology that we could reasonably see happening in our lifetime that would enable us to at least see another star system up close?
Various ideas have been proposed throughout history but perhaps the most credible one is a recent idea called
If successful, breakthrough starshot will be one of the most important events of the entire 21st century.
The plan calls to develop a tiny ship on the scale of centimeters weighing only a few grams with a sail attached to it, 4 meters across by 4 metres tall. It actually calls for a thousand of these tiny ships and sales to be created and for all of them to be lifted into orbit by a larger mothership on a conventional rocket.
Once in orbit the mothership will deploy one tiny ship and sail at a time.
The sail attached to the tiny ships will work much like a sail does on a boat on earth but instead of wind providing the necessary propulsion it will be a huge 1 square kilometer ground-based array packed with high-powered lasers. This square kilometer of lasers will all concentrate to their collective power onto the tiny sails of the ships one at a time, and this should be capable of propelling each vessel to 20% the speed of light in only 10 minutes.
Once all 1,000 ships are on their way, they should be able to reach proxima centauri in about 20 years.
And since the scheduled flight time is in the year 2036, that means that the first human-made spacecraft to arrive in another star system could take place in the near-ish future of 2056.
That’s not to say that the project is without any problems however, A collision with even a speck of dust at that speed would destroy any of the craft, which is why 1000 of them are going all at once so at least some of them will make the journey. In addition the square kilometer laser array on the ground will use up 100 gigawatts of power for each sale that it propels. Which is roughly equivalent
to the peak electricity consumption in france at 7:00 in the evening.
Acquiring that much power is difficult but still possible.
is estimated to be at $10 billion dollars, which sounds like a lot at first, but consider this,
Nasa’s budget in 2018 is $19.1 billion dollars, and the cost for the International Space Station has been $150 billion dollars. The U.S. military budget meanwhile in 2019 was
$716 billion dollars and the us federal budget for 2018 is well over $4 trillion dollars.
Taking $10 billion dollars out of any of these enormous amounts of money is not very much to ask for.
Especially when you consider that there is a planet that orbits inside the habitable zone of Proxima-Centauri named
The ships from Breakthrough Starshot will be capable of taking pictures of this mysterious planet that could reveal oceans, continents, and other surface features if they exist.
Proxima-Centauri B will become the primary focus of future human colonization efforts in our galaxy.
$10 billion dollars is a very small price to pay for potentially securing the future of human civilization in our universe.
And although all of us were likely born in the century before humans themselves will visit another star system, we can take pride in laying the foundations for our descendants to be the explorers that will carry our names and legacies with them.
“Any society grows great when old men plant trees whose shade they know they shall never sit in”.
As always don’t forget to share!.
During your time reading this article from tistip, you may have come across some of the worst punishments humans have ever devised. Torture has been used throughout history to punish criminals, make enemies talk, or just for fun by insane despots. But what if you were sentenced to death using a formRead more
During your time reading this article from tistip, you may have come across some of the
worst punishments humans have ever devised.
Torture has been used throughout history to
punish criminals, make enemies talk, or just
for fun by insane despots.
But what if you were sentenced to death using
a form of punishment that was quick, watched
by thousands, and even may have made you a
Execution using guillotine
We are talking about the guillotine.
Join me as we explore the gruesome and fascinating machine that was the favored form of punishment in France for nearly two hundred years, and whether you agree with this form of punishment or not, just try not to lose your head and keep calm.
The guillotine is probably best known for
its work during the French Revolution.
It struck fear into the hearts of innocent
and guilty citizens across France.
It was a time of unrest and those sentenced
to death rarely had trials.
But beheading and even beheading machines
were not new to the world at the time of the
Beheading as a punishment happened throughout history and across the world.
It can be traced back to ancient Greek and
However, beheading wasn’t for everyone.
It started out as an honourable death and
was reserved for nobles and persons of importance.
If you were someone of lower status, you most
likely would be getting the axe as your beheading device.
But those with real prestige were decapitated
by a sword.
You had to be really important to get the
Either way the result was the same.
Beheading was not just a Eurocentric punishment either.
Seppuku, which is ritual decapitation by Samurai sword, was practiced in Japan from the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries.
Regardless of if you were a Samurai, Roman
soldier, or English crusader decapitation
was always an option as a punishment.
In England beheading gained popularity during Medieval Times.
It was used to execute rival rulers, soldiers,
But traitors were not high status, so they
were not worthy of just your normal beheading.
Instead they were dragged through the streets
by horse to the location of their execution,
hung within inches of death, disemboweled,
and then finally beheaded.
Some traitors were lucky enough to have all
four limbs tied to a different horse, and
then torn apart when the horses ran in different directions.
Luckily the traitor was already dead when
most of the time.
Before the Guillotine became fashionable and
sped up the beheading process, there were
other machines created to achieve this goal.
A machine called the “planke” was used
in Germany during the Middle Ages and England had a similar device with a sliding axe known as the “Halifax Gibbet.”
It would seem that Germany and England both
beat France to the cut.
Eventually France moved into the beheading
The idea for the guillotine and its namesake
was Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin.
Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin.
He was an anatomy professor and politician
in Paris when he came up with his famous idea.
He lobbied before the National Assembly in
1789 for equality in capital punishment.
The idea of equality of life was on the minds
of everyone during the French Revolution.
Dr. Guillotin just took the discussion one
step further to the equality of death.
He argued that it was unfair for common criminals to be tortured as capital punishment, while more noble law brakers were given swift and quick justice.
Some wealthy felons could even tip their executioners to make sure they received a quick death.
Dr. Guillotin argued that if France was going
to be truly egalitarian, then those principles
should extend to capital punishment as well.
All criminals, regardless of class, should
be beheaded, he declared!
His solution was a beheading machine that
ensured everyone received a quick and compassionate death.
He explained that, “the mechanism falls
like lightning; the head flies off; the blood
spurts; the man no longer exists.”
As far as punishments go, everyone is going
to have the same experience.
Joseph-Ignace Guillotin may have come up with the idea of using a beheading machine for
executions, but he was by no means an inventor or engineer.
Instead, a man by the name of Antoine Louis
created and built the first beheading machine
Louis tested his machine on animals, and when the new contraption could cleanly sever the heads of sheep and calves he moved to human trials.
First Louis tested his beheading machine on
the corpses of dead women and children and
was largely successful.
However, with dead human male necks the cuts never seemed clean and this prompted Louis to go through several redesign phases.
To overcome the annoying obstacles of thicker
necks and denser bones of males, Louis increased the height from which the blade dropped and the blade was redesigned into a sloping, triangular shape.
This did the trick and Louis’ machine could
now sever the head of a fully grown male corpse with accuracy and ease.
It is amazing what you can do when you’ve
got a good head on your shoulders.
The machine that Louis made was originally
named after its creator.
The name “Louison” or “Louisette”
did not stick however, after people associated
the machine with the great doctor who came
up with the idea of equality for punishment
Much to the lament of Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin the beheading machine was renamed the guillotine.
But the French people also took to calling
the machine “The Widow” and the “National
The guillotine design was simple yet effective.
It consisted of two upright wooden beams with
a crossbeam at the top, which the rope the
blade was connected to was attached.
Heavy weights were placed on the backside
of the blade to ensure the blade picked up
enough speed to cut cleanly through the neck
of the guillatine’s victims.
The first victim of the device was Nicolas-Jaques Pelletier, who was executed in 1792.
He was a criminal who had been sentenced to
death for robbing and murdering Parisian citizens.
A guillotine was erected in Place de Grève
outside of Hôtel de Ville in Paris.
Pelletier was paraded into the plaza and walked onto the platform where an enthusiastic and interested crowd awaited his execution.
Imagine for a moment you are in the crowd
just waiting around to see the next public
Instead of your usual gallows, a fourteen
foot high wooden machine with a razor sharp
blade hanging from the top sits in the middle
of the plaza.
“What the heck is that?” you might ask
the person next to you.
But no one knows because it is the first time
a contraption like this has been used in France.
You watch as the scoundrel Nicolas-Jaques
Pelletier is walked up onto the platform and
secured so his head rests at the base of the
wooden tower of death.
Then the executioner approaches.
Instead of weilding an axe or sword he walks
empty handed over to a lever.
He pauses for a moment and then pulls.
The shining blade falls like lightning and
cuts straight through the criminal’s neck.
Pelletier’s decapitated head falls into a wicker basket as hired hands throw sawdust onto the blood covered wooden boards.
The crowd erupts in applause.
The guillotine had caught on as the main form
of execution for all convicted felons in the
country of France.
More devices were built and capital punishment by guillotine became almost as popular as egalitarianism during the French Revolution.
At dinner parties people had model guillotines
in their parlors with decapitated effigies
of enemies and politicians.
For holidays and birthdays children received
toy guillotines to decapitate their dolls
or mice they caught running around the house.
Poets and songwriters began to write and sing
about the wonderful machine that was bringing swift justice to all who were condemned.
At all of the public executions vendors were
selling souvenirs to commemorate the time
families spent together watching the executions by the famed guillotine.
If you planned right or knew someone important you could even get a spot at a nearby restaurant called “Cabaret de la Guillotine.”
Some people even attended the guillotine executions on a daily basis.
It was reported that a group of somber taboo
women called the Tricoteuses would sit on
the scaffold and knit socks, hats, and scarves
Even those being executed joined in the excitement.
There were accounts of people walking to their
death making sarcastic jokes and dancing their
way up the steps to the guillotine.
Not only were the executions by guillotine
popular and widely attended, but the guillotine operators were revered as celebrities.
During the French Revolution guillotine operators were judged by fans on how quickly and precisely they could behead their victims.
The more beheadings, the more admired the
executioner was in the hearts of the onlookers.
The guillotine executioner profession became
a family affair such as with the Sanson family.
Fathers and sons served as state executioners
for multiple generations, and were responsible
for decapitating King Louis XVI and Marie
Between the 1790’s and 1840’s the family
was responsible for decapitating thousands
of individuals using the guillotine and could
go almost as quick as a beheading a minute.
It was said that the names of executioners
were chanted for all to hear and the clothing
of executioners inspired the latest fashion
trends across France.
It was rumored over the centuries that when
the head was cut off a victim it was still
conscious and could even move and speak.
There is some truth to these claims, but not
The brain uses around twenty percent of all
oxygen taken in by a human body.
Once oxygen stops being supplied to the brain,
such as when the head is separated from the
heart and lungs, the brain shuts down.
However, there is a small window of time where the oxygen and blood that is present in the brain can still be used.
The rumors of decapitated heads still being
conscious gained public attention when in
1793 an executioner’s assistant slapped
the face of the decapitated head of Charlotte
She was charged and sentenced to execution
for the murder of her husband.
The onlookers claimed to see her cheeks flush
and turn red with anger.
This story led doctors and enthusiast to ask
decapitated heads to blink, speak, or show
signs of consciousness.
Spoiler alert, no severed heads showed any
signs of consciousness.
The experiments with decapitated heads were
put to a stop in the twentieth century, however, studies on rats found that brain activity in a decapitated head may continue for up to four seconds after the head is separated
from the body.
Much to the dismay of guillotine enthusiasts
all things must come to an end.
Slowly capital punishment dwindled during
the twentieth century.
However, there was a brief resurgence of the
guillotine during the the Nazi regime.
During the 1930’s twenty guillotines were
ordered to be placed in cities across Germany.
According to Nazi records the guillotines
were used to execute over sixteen thousand
people between 1933 and 1945.
After World War II the guillotine was still
used in France until 1977 for capital punishment.
The last person to be executed by the guillotine was a convicted murderer named Hamida Djandoubi.
A few years later in 1981 France abolished
capital punishment all togehter.
Before his death Guillotin became incredibly
distraught with how the device he had envisioned and helped create became a symbol of death and terror across Europe.
Guillotin tried to dissociate his name from
the beheading machine, and his family petitioned the French government to change its name, but neither were successful.
There are many forms of torture and punishment more painful than the guillotine, but few can claim such swift and numerous deaths as the “National Razor.”
The guillotine struck fear, awe, and excitement
into the hearts of the people during and after
the French Revolution.
No other form of capital punishment was met
with such pomp and circumstance as the guillotine.
People tended to lose their minds over guillotine executions.
Just remember, if you ever find yourself at
the wrong end of a guillotine you may still
have four seconds to make a face before your
decapitated head loses consciousness. Lol
Thanks for reading don’t forget to share and sign up
[caption id="attachment_2494" align="alignnone" width="215"] Frane Selak[/caption] Frane Selak On a cold January morning in 1962, 32 year old Croatian Frane Selak was minding his own business when suddenly his train derailed. Disconnected from the rest of the train, his train car plunged down a narrRead more
On a cold January morning in 1962, 32 year
old Croatian Frane Selak was minding his own
business when suddenly his train derailed.
Disconnected from the rest of the train, his
train car plunged down a narrow canyon and
into an icy river.
Desperately fighting to escape the sinking
train car, Selak made his way to the shore
before being pulled to safety by a bystander.
While 17 other people drowned in that tragic
accident, Selak suffered nothing more than
a broken arm and hypothermia.
Yet this was the day life would take a strange
turn for Selak, throwing the mild-mannered
music teacher into a curious roller coaster
Prior to his train accident, Frane Selak led
a quiet and unassuming life as a local music
It seems though that life- or more accurately,
death- had plans for Selak.
Miraculously escaping death in his train accident, Selak counted his lucky stars and continued about his life, chalking up the incident to a stroke of bad luck.
But one year later Selak’s mother fell ill.
Gravely concerned, Selak- who had always been too nervous to fly- immediately booked a plane ticket from Zagreb to Rijeka.
The earliest flight being fully booked, Selak
managed to persuade a sympathetic airline
employee to let him ride in the rear of the
aircraft along with the single flight attendant.
Nervous, Selak took to the skies without incident, chatting up the friendly flight attendant and sharing tea to take his mind off his nerves.
Minutes before landing though, the rear door
to the aircraft suddenly blew open, the pressure difference between the interior and exterior of the plane sucking Selak and the flight attendant clear out of the airplane.
Plunging to a certain death, Selak miraculously survived by landing in a haystack, suffering nothing more than minor injuries.
Unfortunately, there were no other survivors
of the terrible accident.
Two brushes with death are enough for a single
lifetime, but fate wasn’t done with Selak.
Four years later, Selak was commuting on a
local bus when the bus suddenly skidded into
Once more plunged into icy waters, Selak managed to swim free of the sinking vehicle and make his way to safety, suffering nothing more than cuts and bruises.
Four other riders were not so lucky and lost
Perhaps, and very understandably, deterred
from public transportation, Selak purchased
a car of his own.
In 1970 while driving, his vehicle burst into
flames and exploded.
Diving for safety, Selak managed to escape
the burning wreck, once more suffering nothing more than minor wounds.
What should have been a freak accident repeated itself three years later, with yet another of Selak’s vehicles exploding after spontaneously catching fire.
Diving for safety once more, Selak escape
this time with minor burns.
Perhaps giving him a chance to catch his breath, life gave Frane Selak 22 years of relative peace- until a bus hit him while walking on a street in Zagreb in 1995.
Surviving once more with relatively few injuries, Selak was then forced off a mountain road a year later.
Driving in the Croatian mountains, an oncoming UN truck barreling down a narrow road forced Selak to swerve, sending his car plunging off a the mountain ledge and into a ravine.
Jumping out at the last second, Selak managed
to grab onto the branches of a tree and hoist
himself to safety as his car smashed into
the ground below.
That would be the last time death would make
an attempt on Selak’s life- at least to date.
As if to make up for his incredible streak
of bad luck, Selak caught a break in 2003
when he won a million dollar lottery.
Interviewed by several international publications, Selak said that “You could look at it two ways- I was either the unluckiest man in the world, or the luckiest.
I preferred to believe the latter.”
Lucky or not, Selak’s reputation for tragedy
had made it difficult to keep friends.
People around him are hesitant to get into
vehicles with him, or be in his general proximity- and who could blame them?
Reflecting on his life, Selak told reporters,
“There came a stage when I was lucky to
have any friends at all.
Many stopped seeing me saying I was bad karma.”
A neighbor of Selak also commented, “Put
it like this, if I heard Frane had booked
a flight or train, I would cancel.”
Selak’s long streak of bad luck seems to be
over, but with so much international attention
falling on the man, doubt about some of his
claims have begun to spring up.
Many doubters point to a lack of official
records documenting any fatal plane or train
crashes in 1962 or 1963, and in an interview
with the BBC either Selak misstated his original story or a reporter miswrote it, giving the first year of his accident as 1957 and not
1962, and saying it took place on a bus instead
of a train.
Inconsistencies have also popped up in Selak’s
own telling of his stories, with Selak claiming
in 2003 that he’d been playing the lottery
consistently for years before finally winning,
but when re-interviewed in 2010 he claimed
he’d won the jackpot on his very first time
Details tend to become murkier the longer
a story is retold, and with Selak now in his
late 80s it’s understandable if there are
The nature of Selak’s incredible escapes from
death also makes them fodder for skeptics,
yet Selak and those close to him stick by
each story, and real or not Selak has had
to bear the stigma of being incredibly unlucky
from friends and family alike.
If real though, Selak is truly the unluckiest
lucky man in the world, and it’s nice to see
that life finally granted him a consolation
prize for trying to kill him- even if it took
So, what do you think about Selak’s life?
Too incredible to be true?
Let us know!
Thanks for reading, and, as always, don’t
forget to share, and sign up