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A place to talk about technology, science and innovation. And a place to get answers to all your tech and science related issues
What is UVC Lights It's an incredibly powerful form of ultraviolet light that's beamed from the Sun. It's so powerful that it can give you a sunburn in seconds. And looking at a UVC light is ten times stronger than staring directly at the Sun. UVC light Use But while UVC is extremely dangerous, it cRead more
It’s an incredibly powerful form of ultraviolet light that’s beamed from the Sun.
It’s so powerful that it can give you a sunburn in seconds.
And looking at a UVC light is ten times stronger than staring directly at the Sun.
But while UVC is extremely dangerous, it can also be extremely helpful.
Since scientists figured out how to harness its power, UVC has been used to disinfect surfaces on public transportation, hospitals, and even money.
In developing countries, UVC is often used to help purify drinking water.
Its reputation is established as a reliable killer of microbes, so people are now wondering if UVC can be brought to battle against the novel coronavirus.
UV light has been used for sterilization and disinfection since the mid-20th century.
Why is UVC Lights not used now?
Is UVC our best shot at fighting current and future pandemics?
Well, you may not have known it, but the Sun has already been fighting diseases on our behalf for quite some time.
But that doesn’t mean harmful bacteria and viruses will simply evaporate while we’re getting our tan on.
The Earth’s ozone layer blocks UVC rays from reaching us, which is definitely a good thing.
While they’d probably wipe out any microbial threats, our skin could also be severely damaged.
If we were to use UVC light to kill viruses, we’d opt for a less damaging version called far UVC.
This type of light efficiently kills bacteria without harming exposed skin.
While far-UVC is easily absorbed by biological materials, like human tissue, the outer layer of our skin is actually dead, so the UVC rays would not be able to interact with the healthy cells inside our bodies and create cancer or other diseases.
But because microbes are so small, and don’t have the same protective layer of dead skin that we do, they’re easily vaporized by far-UVC light.
Costing less than $1,000 per lamp, and probably less if they were mass-produced, we could light our streets, our parks, our public transit systems with germ-killing far-UVC lamps.
We could even install them on handrails so that they could sterilize themselves during the day.
The efficiency of ultraviolet light treatments depends on how the virus spreads.
If we’re dealing with an airborne virus, UVC lamps might do the trick.
But if it’s a disease that’s spread through direct contact, UVC lamps won’t help us very much.
Viruses also come in different shapes and sizes, which means we’d have to adjust the power and exposure time of our UVC lamps for every new virus that comes around.
And regardless of how well they’re built, UVC lamps would still likely expose the public to increased levels of radiation.
And even low doses over an extended period of time can be just as lethal as short doses of high energy radiation.
So while we might enjoy a nice, year-round tan, we’d also become more wrinkly and would be at higher risk of developing cataracts.
That means sunscreen would be a must at all times, along with big sunglasses and crazy hats! But if that’s not your style, don’t worry about it too much.
UV lamps don’t offer full protection against a pandemic, but they could certainly help to
“flatten the curve.”
It’s unlikely that towns and cities would convert every street light and lamppost to far-UVC, but you could see more of them used in microbial hotspots.
You know which ones I’m talking about.
But just because new technology could help us fight new viral and bacterial threats, it doesn’t mean we should forget the best ways to protect ourselves.
Let’s fix that stat.
Wash your hands!
Especially after using the bathroom.
Unless you don’t plan on leaving the bathroom at all.
See What Will Happen If Earth Orbit UY Scuti
Which Year Did 5G installation Started Early in 2019 several companies began to roll out their new 5G cellular services in major cities across the US. These quiet roll outs served as test beds for a host of new 5g cell phones, as well as ways to stress test the technology itself. And as happens withRead more
Early in 2019 several companies began to roll
out their new 5G cellular services in major
cities across the US.
These quiet roll outs served as test beds
for a host of new 5g cell phones, as well
as ways to stress test the technology itself.
And as happens with any new technology, some people immediately started freaking out and the internet was there to happily help them
run wild with rumors and conspiracy theories
about the dangers of 5g.
To start, fear of new technologies is nothing
new, especially when they play an immediate
impact in our day to day life.
In the late 1800s cities around the world
began to install electric street lighting.
While many cities already enjoyed the benefit
of gas lamps, these were expensive to maintain, generally only covered small areas of major cities, and actually did have an element of danger since gas is, you know, explosive.
Electric lamps however were cheap, and could
all be turned on and off with the switch of
a single button.
No longer would lamp lighters need to spend
hours each evening going around the city lighting individual lamps one by one.
The new electric light technology promised
to make our growing cities well lit and keep
people safe while out at night- and not just
in the rich neighbourhoods were gas lighting
While street lights are ubiquitous across
any modern nation, the plan to string up electric street lighting across entire cities was met by a wave of fear from the population.
Many feared the health hazards of lighting
up a city at night, as it would throw off
people’s ability to tell night from day and
thus ruin sleep cycles.
Massive health hazards were predicted, as
millions of people had their sleep schedules
turned on their heads.
It was feared a wave of madness would overtake humanity.
But, no such thing happened and those early
fear mongers would likely have a hay day with
our modern twenty-four-seven lifestyles.
Religious figures got in on the outrage too,
warning that lighting up entire cities would
violate God’s natural laws.
That is because God had clearly made a difference between night and day, and if we were to do away with that divinely-inspired segregation of light and dark then… who knows, demons may burst forth from the mouth of hell, cats and dogs would become best friends and up would become down.
The Vatican feared offending God’s own sleep
cycle so much that it initially banned gas
lights in the 1830s.
It might be tempting to laugh at the ignorance
of zealots and the ignorant masses of the
1800s, but you’d be doing so at the risk of
being laughed at yourself by future generations.
Today we are afraid of everything from chemtrails to GMO foods, despite common sense and decades worth of scientific studies.
You’re free to laugh at the ignorance of 1800
citizens who believed electric lights would
drive everyone insane, as long as you don’t
mind that in two hundred years you’ll be laughed at for being afraid of vaccines- if everyone hasn’t died to super-measles by then.
But of all the fears we have about our modern
world, the latest to hit the internet and
rumor mills around the world are fears over
5g cellular service.
5G is simply another evolution in wireless
information transfer technology.
5G literally means fifth generation, but as
opposed to previous generations 5g operates
at much higher frequencies than previously
The higher frequencies allow 5g service to
deliver greater packets of data, with the
potential estimated to be up to ten gigabytes
This could dramatically change our wireless
world and promises to make everything from
augmented and virtual reality to smart autonomous vehicles a fixture of our lives.
Unfortunately though as you increase the frequency of a carrier wave, its range is dramatically decreased as is its ability to penetrate through solid objects like walls.
This is why the military very often uses extremely low frequency bandwidths to transmit messages, most famously with its fleet of nuclear submarines who use a global system of extreme low frequency transmitters to communicate with its boats from anywhere in the world.
Mention high frequency outside of a science
classroom though and the public very quickly
begins to soil their collective pantaloons.
On one hand the fears are justified, after
all history is full of examples of poorly
understood technologies being marketed to
an ignorant public- it wasn’t too long ago
that ionizing radiation was promised as a
cure-all for, well everything.
You could find radioactive elements in everything from makeup powders to breakfast cereals, all with the promise that the ionizing radiation would boost your vigour and refresh your health!
Of course it did pretty much the opposite,
and it didn’t take long for people to figure
Yet today, unlike yesteryear, we have international systems of scientific checks and balances which work very well to stamp out bias and scientific deception.
While a massive conspiracy to cook everyone’s
brains with cell phones is not entirely impossible, it would be an extremely difficult scheme to sneak pass the thousands of watchdog agencies all connected by the global internet.
Plus it doesn’t pass the first point of failure for any conspiracy theory: common sense.
If cell phone companies purposefully developed a product that irradiated its consumers, those
same companies would
1 – be buried under mountains
of lawsuits, and
2 – not have consumers anymore
when people flat-out refused to use cell phones out of fear.
Fears over cell phone radiation are nothing
new though, and have plagued the devices ever since their mainstream adoption in the 1990s.
All matter of products have been marketed
promising to protect you from the risk of
electromagnetic radiation from your evil cell
phone, most of which were nothing more than
snake oil that did little if anything to block
the radio frequencies emitted by your cell
Ongoing public fears have prompted scientific
study after scientific study, and yet no valid
study has yet to prove that normal cell phone
use poses a real risk to humans.
In fact, back when killing people with radio
waves was something the Japanese were actually trying to do during World War II, the best they managed with extremely powerful modified radar dishes was to kill a rabbit at a distance of a few dozen feet- and even then only after ten minutes and using an antenna several meters across and locking the rabbit up in a cage where it couldn’t move.
After much careful scientific study by research staff they were able to conclude that your phone is in fact, far smaller than a 3-meter wide antenna and you are far larger than a rabbit.
Thanks to the United States and the Soviet
Union doing their darned best to kill every
human on planet earth for forty years though,
we have an understandable aversion to anything with the word radiation in it.
This explains why people are so concerned
over cell phones, which blast out electromagnetic radiation into their environment.
Coupled with the fact that you typically then
put these devices up to your head in order
to speak into them, we can see where the concerns over radiation affecting people’s brains come from.
It’s important to understand the differences
between the different types of radiation though.
The first, and the most feared, is ionizing
radiation, which is one of the types of radiation
emitted by a nuclear explosion.
This is the same stuff that comic books said
would turn us into super-powered Spidermen,
except unless your preferred superpower is
the ability to get cancer, then no it won’t.
Ionizing radiation is harmful to living beings
because of the energy in its extremely short
wavelength and high frequency waves, which
can knock electrons loose from atoms and seriously damage the molecules inside your body.
Non-ionizing radiation on the other hand doesn’t carry enough energy to break molecular bonds, and the best that they can do is cause heating by vibrating molecules at high speeds.
This is exactly how your microwave works-
it emits microwave radiation with high enough
energy to vibrate water molecules in your
food, generating heat which warms the food.
But with 5g using wavelengths similar to those
in a microwave, how in the world could our
The answer to that question has to do with
power- a microwave can emit anywhere between 500 and 1000 watts of power, which actually is enough to kill, if you were to crawl inside a giant microwave and turn on the popcorn setting that is.
It also emits this much energy continuously,
while a cell phone only emits a few watts
of power and even this comes in short bursts.
If you don’t believe physics though, then
you can believe the tests done on live animals
to see how dangerous the electromagnetic radiation given off by the frequencies used by cell phones are.
One ten year study tracked colonies of mice
and rats which had their full bodies exposed
to radio frequencies used by 2g and 3g cell
The test subjects were exposed for 18 hours
a day in intervals of ten minutes on and ten
minutes off, starting before they were even
born while inside their mothers and lasting
throughout the normal course of their lives.
The power level of the RF radiation used ranged from above to slightly below permitted levels for cellular devices, and after a decade the study found no direct correlation between
RF radiation and ill health effects.
Given the far less exposure humans are subjected to and the physical properties of 5g’s very high frequency waves, scientists have expressed little fear that 5g will be dangerous.
For starters the waves are so poor at propagating through objects and even just empty air that companies are forced to build mini-towers every city block or so, and in consumer tests of 5g devices earlier this year most lost service after getting only a few hundred feet away from them.
This doesn’t bode well for 5g waves trying
to penetrate through the layers of your skin
and skull in order to get to your defenseless
brain and start cooking it.
Nevertheless, we fully expect that fear mongering and rumors will continue to spread as 5g rolls out around the world, and we also don’t expect to be disappointed by the countless snake oil salesman and their crazy inventions the promise will protect you from the evil cell phone radiation.
Of course I know that you know that this
is exactly what i’d say if I were in fact
part of a major conspiracy and in the pocket
of all of the major cell phone carriers and
manufacturers, which is why I encourage you
to do your own research into the difference
between ionizing and non-ionizing radiation.
And as always if you enjoyed this article don’t
forget to Share, and sign up for more
[caption id="attachment_2633" align="alignnone" width="300"] Image Source (national Geographic)[/caption] here's what would happen if the Moon fell to Earth. The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite, and the largest object to brighten our night sky. It's the first and only place beyond Earth whereRead more
Image Source (national Geographic)
here’s what would happen if the Moon fell to Earth.
The Moon is Earth’s only natural satellite,
and the largest object to brighten our night sky.
It’s the first and only place beyond Earth where humans have set foot.
The Moon’s gravitational pull causes tides on Earth.
Tides that might have been the encouragement
for life in our oceans to move on land.
This pull also keeps Earth from wobbling on its axis, making our climate relatively stable.
In short, the Moon makes Earth a more livable place.
What if it suddenly speed up, and started driving in Earth’s direction?
The Moon’s plan to destroy Earth by bumping into it would break into pieces the moment it reaches the Roche limit.
The Moon itself would shatter, never making it to Earth’s surface.
And that’s going to look very impressive!
In celestial mechanics,
it is the point at which the gravity holding a satellite together is weaker than the tidal
forces trying to pull it apart.
In other words, the Moon can only get as close as 18,470 km (11,470 miles) away from our planet,
before – BOOM!
The tidal forces would tear it apart.
All the footprints and flags we’ve left on the Moon, all of its craters and valleys would scatter to form a breathtaking ring of
debris above Earth’s equator.
Making Earth the second planet in the solar system, after Saturn, to have this striking ring of beauty. The difference being that our rings wouldn’t last long.
The chunks of our former satellite, the Moon, would rain down on Earth.
It would be as if hundreds of thousands of asteroids were falling down on us and wiping out entire cities in the process.
Once the Moon began its trajectory towards the planet, it would increase the tidal impact it has on us.
By the time it hit the Roche limit, it would be causing tides as high as 7,600 meters (30,000 feet).
Our world would be devastated by an army of tsunamis – ten times a day.
But for a short time, hardcore surfers would enjoy riding some tasty waves.
On the other hand, this might become a solution to global warming.
With the Moon coming closer, Earth’s rotation would speed up.
Our days would become shorter and shorter.
Global temperatures would go down, and no one would worry about climate change anymore.
Unless asteroids burned the Earth to a crisp.
Then there would be no one to worry about anything.
I really wouldn’t worry about it anyway.
In fact, the Moon is drifting away from us at the rate of 4 cm (1.5 inches) per year.
So it’s very unlikely we’ll get to see those
pretty, Saturn-like rings here on Earth.
What if all the stars disappeared tomorrow? Together with all the planets, solar systems and galaxies? here's what would happen if the Universe ended tomorrow. Some 50 million years from now, the Martian moon Phobos will slam into Mars and shatter to pieces. In 100 million years, Earth will likely gRead more
here’s what would happen if the Universe ended tomorrow.
Some 50 million years from now, the Martian moon Phobos will slam into Mars and shatter to pieces.
In 100 million years, Earth will likely get hit by an asteroid the size of the one that caused all the dinosaurs to go extinct.
In about 1.5 billion years, the Sun will become so luminous, that it will force the habitable
zone to move outwards, leaving what’s left of Earth to get crispy.
Everything will eventually come to an end.
Even our almost 14-billion-year old Universe.
Don’t get too comfy.
The end of the Universe would mean the end of everything in it.
Two trillion galaxies that we can observe from Earth, filled with a tremendous
amount of everything from enormous gas giants to weird shaped asteroids.
Everything would be gone, including you and
whoever else is out there.
But your last moments could be very different
depending on how the Universe shut down.
Here are three ways it might happen.
The Universe is expanding.
Galaxies are moving away from each other at an ever-increasing rate, despite the attempts of gravity to pull them back together.
That’s because a theoretical force called dark energy is opposing the force of gravity.
If one day, this dark energy pulled a little too hard, the pieces of raw material needed for star formation would become too far away from each other.
All the existing stars would eventually run out of fuel, and there would be no new ones to replace them.
It would get very dark and very cold.
Once the temperature reached absolute zero, nothing would be able to move, not a single atom.
The Universe would become the most boring, static place, and would probably remain an endless void forever.
I bet you were hoping for a more spectacular ending to this story.
If the dark energy became so intense that it was able to nullify the force of gravity altogether, it would rip the Universe apart.
It would start with the galaxies, tearing them down one by one.
Black holes would be next to disintegrate, followed by stars, planets, asteroids…
As the expansion of the Universe ramped up,
every form of matter would collapse on itself
and decay into radiation.
That, of course, includes you.
The Universe would end up full of single particles.
If the force of gravity fought back
hard enough to overthrow the dark energy,
the Universe would stop expanding.
It would shrink back instead.
Planets would collide with other planets.
The stars would slam into each other.
Galaxies would merge together.
Earth wouldn’t be able to dodge all the space matter for too long.
The Universe would compress into a very dense singularity, just the way it was before the
Big Bang began spewing out galaxies.
From that singularity, it could
make a fresh cosmic start:
with new planets, new stars, new life forms.
One way or another, the Universe and everything in it will end.
But it won’t happen in just one day. We still have time to become a more advanced civilization, and maybe even find a cozy
exoplanet to settle on.
[caption id="attachment_2615" align="alignnone" width="300"] Solar panel[/caption] The Earth intercepts a lot of solar power: 173 thousand terawatts. That's ten thousand times more power than the planet's population uses. So is it possible that one day the world could be completely reliant on solarRead more
The Earth intercepts a lot of solar power:
173 thousand terawatts.
That’s ten thousand times more power
than the planet’s population uses.
To answer that question,
we first need to examine how solar panels
convert solar energy to electrical energy.
Solar panels are made up of smaller units
called solar cells.
The most common solar cells are made from silicon, a semiconductor that is the second
most abundant element on Earth.
In a solar cell, crystalline silicon is sandwiched
between conductive layers.
Each silicon atom is connected to its neighbors by four strong bonds, which keep the electrons in place so no current can flow.
Here’s the key: a silicon solar cell uses
two different layers of silicon.
An n-type silicon has extra electrons,
and p-type silicon has extra spaces for electrons, called holes.
Where the two types of silicon meet, electrons can wander across the p/n junction,
leaving a positive charge on one side
and creating negative charge on the other.
You can think of light as the flow of tiny particles called photons, shooting out from the Sun.
When one of these photons strikes
the silicon cell with enough energy, it can knock an electron from its bond,
leaving a hole.
The negatively charged electron and
location of the positively charged hole
are now free to move around.
But because of the electric field at the p/n junction, they’ll only go one way.
The electron is drawn to the n-side,
while the hole is drawn to the p-side.
The mobile electrons are collected by thin metal fingers at the top of the cell.
From there, they flow through an external circuit, doing electrical work, like powering a lightbulb, before returning through the conductive
aluminum sheet on the back.
Each silicon cell only puts out half a volt, but you can string them together in modules to get more power.
Twelve photovoltaic cells are enough
to charge a cellphone,
while it takes many modules
to power an entire house.
Electrons are the only moving parts
in a solar cell, and they all go back where they came from.
There’s nothing to get worn out
or used up, so solar cells can last for decades.
There are political factors at play,
not to mention businesses that lobby
to maintain the status quo.
But for now, let’s focus on the physical
and logistical challenges,
and the most obvious of those is that solar energy is unevenly distributed across the planet.
Some areas are sunnier than others.
It’s also inconsistent.
Less solar energy is available
on cloudy days or at night.
So a total reliance would require
efficient ways to get electricity from sunny spots to cloudy ones,
and effective storage of energy.
The efficiency of the cell itself
is a challenge, too.
If sunlight is reflected instead of absorbed,
or if dislodged electrons fall back into
a hole before going through the circuit, that photon’s energy is lost.
The most efficient solar cell yet still only converts 46% of the available sunlight to electricity, and most commercial systems are currently 15-20% efficient.
In spite of these limitations, it actually would be possible to power the entire world
with today’s solar technology.
We’d need the funding to build the infrastructure and a good deal of space.
Estimates range from tens to hundreds of thousands of square miles,
which seems like a lot, but the Sahara Desert alone is over 3 million square miles in area.
Meanwhile, solar cells are getting
better, cheaper and are competing
with electricity from the grid.
And innovations, like floating solar farms,
may change the landscape entirely.
Thought experiments aside, there’s the fact
that over a billion people don’t have access
to a reliable electric grid, especially in developing countries, many of which are sunny.
So in places like that, solar energy is already much cheaper and safer than available alternatives,
For say, Finland or Seattle, though,
effective solar energy
may still be a little way off.
We can build really big things in space. Okay, not that big - yet. But we've packed the Earth's lower orbit with about 5,000 satellites - some still functioning and some not. What if we could build a bigger, brighter satellite, and put it into Earth's lower orbit? Something that would reflect so mucRead more
We can build really big things in space.
Okay, not that big – yet.
But we’ve packed the Earth’s lower orbit
with about 5,000 satellites –
some still functioning and some not.
What if we could build a bigger,
brighter satellite, and put it into Earth’s lower orbit? Something that would reflect
so much sunlight that we’d never have to
turn our lights on again.
The largest satellite we’ve put into lower orbit,
the International Space Station, is as long as a football field.
We assembled it in pieces in several launches,
and now it’s revolving around the Earth
some 400 km (250 mi) above us.
Most of the Earth’s satellites in low orbit
are operating just above the ISS.
Some of them are parked
in geostationary orbit, about 35,000 km (22,000 mi) above the Earth’s equator.
The real Moon revolves around us
from a distance of 380,000 km
(236,000 mi) away.
But we don’t need to put our artificial moon that far away.
We’d place it somewhere between
the Earth and the ISS.
That’s a good spot right there.
We’d have to make sure it maintains
a speed of 27,400 km/h (17,000 mph).
Otherwise, it falls back to Earth.
We’d cover its surface with some highly reflective material so that it could bounce the
light from the Sun back at us.
Then, we’d turn off our lights and enjoy bright nights all year long.
If you’re not into falling asleep with the lights on, you’d need to get some very
dark blinds for your bedroom.
Too bad animals wouldn’t have the same option.
This new moon might cause
havoc for nocturnal creatures who rely on moonlight to mate, hunt, or navigate.
Too much light at night could
mess around with your body too,
leading to obesity and a higher
chance of heart disease, diabetes and depression.
The artificial moon would also
obscure the view of the natural sky.
Ground-based telescopes wouldn’t be able to capture images of deep space.
It could result in us giving up on our dreams
to go to distant stars – imprisoning us on Earth forever.
Wait for it…
Some sources have reported
that Chinese space engineers
are already working on it.
Their moon would be not just ten,
but eighty times bigger that the ISS.
It would shine 8 times brighter than the natural Moon,
and it would supposedly save them
$173 million/year in electricity bills.
However, we haven’t seen the actual plans
or a development strategy, so…
don’t be upset if an artificial moon
doesn’t appear in the sky sometime soon.
We still like our natural, beautiful Moon
that we could colonize and
use as a cosmic airport for future space travel.
[caption id="attachment_2530" align="alignnone" width="300"] Venus Surface Hot Heat[/caption] The Earth might not be here forever. A huge solar flare, an asteroid impact, or a local gamma-ray burst - anything could wipe us out for good. If we're looking for some place to escape to, there is one planRead more
Venus Surface Hot Heat
The Earth might not be here forever.
A huge solar flare, an asteroid impact, or
a local gamma-ray burst – anything could wipe us out for good.
If we’re looking for some place to escape to,
there is one planet in our Solar System
that’s somewhat similar to Earth.
Though we don’t know much about it.
Not only are Earth and Venus about the same size, they both have identical interiors
with partially liquid cores, mantles and crusts.
Yet, Venus happens to be the most hostile terrestrial planet in the Solar System.
But what if I told you that you could explore this hot planet without ever setting foot on it?
Venus isn’t a place you’d want to land on.
Thanks to its dense atmosphere and and turtle-like rotation, the surface temperature of Venus stays at 462°C (863.6°F).
The planet’s atmospheric pressure
is 92 times greater than Earth’s.
Because of such high pressure, anything entering the atmosphere of Venus gets immediately crushed before it reaches
the planet’s volcanic surface.
With such extreme atmospheric conditions, it’s too dangerous to attempt a manned landing on Venus.
But we wouldn’t need to go down there.
Above the dense layer of clouds, Venus isn’t that bad.
The atmospheric pressure is similar to Earth’s.
The gravity is slightly lower.
And the temperature reaches 75°C (167°F).
Although that’s a little hot, it’s still workable.
We’d need to start small.
According to NASA’s plan for exploring Venus,
we’d send two spaceships to our destination.
Venus is the closest planet to Earth.
That’s why it would only take 100 days
for the craft to arrive there.
One of the ships would be run by robots.
It would carry a special airship that it would eject into the atmosphere upon arrival.
This airship would start to inflate itself with helium.
Since helium is lighter than air, the airship would float, orbiting about 52 km (32 mi) above the planet.
The second spaceship would have a crew of two people.
It would link up with the airship orbiting Venus.
The crew would have 30 days to make all the environmental assessments.
After that, they’d detach from the airship
and start making their way back to Earth.
The return trip would take about 300 days
due to the Sun’s strong gravitational pull.
But even with that, the complete mission
wouldn’t take longer than 450 days.
After analyzing the information from the first mission, we’d begin to plan our next trip to Venus.
But this time, we’d stay there longer.
The next crew would have a year
to study the planet and its atmosphere.
One of the things they’d be looking
for on Venus would be life.
Scientists think that because microbes on Earth can thrive in acidic conditions surrounded by sulfur, there could be life found in the Venusian atmosphere.
After the end of the second mission, we would start preparing to stay on Venus permanently.
We would begin building cloud cities, where future generations of humans
would live and hopefully continue to explore space and the origins of life in it.
They might even solve the pressure problem.
From there, they would terraform the planet
and settle down on the once hostile Venusian surface.
I'm sure that many of you growing up like me used to spend time dreaming about visiting another planet or another star. You've probably heard the phrase, "born too late, to explore the world and born too early to explore the universe,". which implies that our ancestors explored the unknown parts ofRead more
I’m sure that many of you growing up like me used to spend time dreaming about visiting another planet or another star.
You’ve probably heard the phrase,
“born too late, to explore the world and born too early to explore the universe,”.
which implies that our ancestors explored the unknown parts of Earth while our descendants will be exploring the unknown parts of our universe, leaving us in the 21st century as the awkward middle children with little exploration to accomplish.
But is this really the case?
and could our civilization actually reach out and touch another star during your lifetime?
For reference the nearest other known star closest to our sun is here called
but it’s still 4.25 light-years away from us That doesn’t seem too bad So let’s explore how to get there using current technology.
this probe is the farthest away from earth that a man-made object has ever been so far.
It is currently almost 140 astronomical units away from our sun, meaning that it’s
140 times farther away from the sun than earth is. To have reached this distance,
Voyager utilized gravity assists from both the Jupiter and Saturn to reach a speed of 17 km/s.
But even at this far away distance and at the same speed, it would take voyager another
73,000 years to reach Proxima Centauri.
NASA, however launch another space probe in year 2018 that is the fastest moving object humanity has ever created.
It’s called the
parker solar probe and it will be sent to study the outer corona of the sun.
Utilizing repeated gravity assists from Venus, the probe will enter into an elliptical orbit around the sun and at its closest point to the sun in orbit, the probe will achieve a velocity of an amazing 200 kilometers per second. That’s fast enough to zip around the entire earth at the equator in 3 minutes and 24 seconds. But it’s still only a tiny 0.07% of the speed of light which means that even at that speed it would take the probe well over 7,000 years to reach proxima centauri.
So is there any technology that we could reasonably see happening in our lifetime that would enable us to at least see another star system up close?
Various ideas have been proposed throughout history but perhaps the most credible one is a recent idea called
If successful, breakthrough starshot will be one of the most important events of the entire 21st century.
The plan calls to develop a tiny ship on the scale of centimeters weighing only a few grams with a sail attached to it, 4 meters across by 4 metres tall. It actually calls for a thousand of these tiny ships and sales to be created and for all of them to be lifted into orbit by a larger mothership on a conventional rocket.
Once in orbit the mothership will deploy one tiny ship and sail at a time.
The sail attached to the tiny ships will work much like a sail does on a boat on earth but instead of wind providing the necessary propulsion it will be a huge 1 square kilometer ground-based array packed with high-powered lasers. This square kilometer of lasers will all concentrate to their collective power onto the tiny sails of the ships one at a time, and this should be capable of propelling each vessel to 20% the speed of light in only 10 minutes.
Once all 1,000 ships are on their way, they should be able to reach proxima centauri in about 20 years.
And since the scheduled flight time is in the year 2036, that means that the first human-made spacecraft to arrive in another star system could take place in the near-ish future of 2056.
That’s not to say that the project is without any problems however, A collision with even a speck of dust at that speed would destroy any of the craft, which is why 1000 of them are going all at once so at least some of them will make the journey. In addition the square kilometer laser array on the ground will use up 100 gigawatts of power for each sale that it propels. Which is roughly equivalent
to the peak electricity consumption in france at 7:00 in the evening.
Acquiring that much power is difficult but still possible.
is estimated to be at $10 billion dollars, which sounds like a lot at first, but consider this,
Nasa’s budget in 2018 is $19.1 billion dollars, and the cost for the International Space Station has been $150 billion dollars. The U.S. military budget meanwhile in 2019 was
$716 billion dollars and the us federal budget for 2018 is well over $4 trillion dollars.
Taking $10 billion dollars out of any of these enormous amounts of money is not very much to ask for.
Especially when you consider that there is a planet that orbits inside the habitable zone of Proxima-Centauri named
The ships from Breakthrough Starshot will be capable of taking pictures of this mysterious planet that could reveal oceans, continents, and other surface features if they exist.
Proxima-Centauri B will become the primary focus of future human colonization efforts in our galaxy.
$10 billion dollars is a very small price to pay for potentially securing the future of human civilization in our universe.
And although all of us were likely born in the century before humans themselves will visit another star system, we can take pride in laying the foundations for our descendants to be the explorers that will carry our names and legacies with them.
“Any society grows great when old men plant trees whose shade they know they shall never sit in”.
As always don’t forget to share!.
Have you ever seen a sunrise like this before? One so bright that you couldn't leave your house without sunglasses? And you'd want to avoid sun-tanning at all costs. Well, of course you haven't, because that's not our Sun. It's the largest star that we've ever discovered, UY Scuti. And if it were toRead more
Have you ever seen a sunrise like this before? One so bright that you couldn’t leave your house without sunglasses? And you’d want to avoid sun-tanning at all costs.
Well, of course you haven’t, because that’s not our Sun. It’s the largest star that we’ve ever discovered, UY Scuti. And if it were to replace our Sun, it would change a lot more than just the amount of sunscreen you’d have to put on. To say that UY Scuti is huge would be an understatement. It’s one of the largest things that the human race has ever discovered. To put it in perspective, it’s about 1,700 times larger than our Sun. If you were to fly a Boeing 777 airplane around UY Scuti, it would take over 1,200 years to make the trip.
UY scuti compared to sun
Before we can answer that, we need to get to know UY Scuti a little better. Discovered by German astronomers in 1860,
UY Scuti is located in the Scutum constellation, about 9,500 light-years from Earth. It’s a pulsating star that swells and shrinks periodically, usually shining about 400,000 times brighter than our Sun. If UY Scuti took our Sun’s place at the center of our solar system, it would engulf everything as far out as the orbit of Saturn. That includes all of us here on Earth, so maybe it’s best to leave that huge star where it is. Instead, we could just move the Earth to the orbit of UY Scuti. But we’d have to be careful how close we place our planet to this gigantic star. To be habitable, we’d have to put our planet in orbit about 1.5 trillion km away from UY Scuti. At this distance, it would take about 10,000 years for the Earth to complete just one orbit around the celestial body. That would change our entire concept of life as we know it. Each season would last 2,500 years. That means that entire civilizations could rise and fall without ever seeing more than one season. For most people, summer might be something that they’ve only heard about through legends. In case a perpetual winter isn’t bad enough, don’t forget that the orbit around UY Scuti would be located right in the middle of the Milky Way, where cosmic rays and light from other stars would shine bright enough to keep our sky blue all day and night. On top of that, UY Scuti would be pulsing out extra heavy radiation about every 740 days. And things would only get worse the longer we stay there. You see, UY Scuti is a red giant, which means it’s a lot closer to its death than our Sun is, about 40 times closer to be precise. When it does die, it’s expected to explode with the force of more than 100 supernovas. A supernova is the explosion of a star, and it’s the largest explosion that takes place in space. So the force of 100 stars exploding would obliterate everything nearby. Even if Earth was far enough away to survive the blast, without the star, there would be no heat and no light, and life couldn’t survive on Earth without those two things. So, once again, What If has killed off the entire human race. Maybe it’s a better idea to leave the Earth where it is, and appreciate how lucky we are to orbit our Sun. Well, until it explodes.
You most likely use it every day, yet if someone asked you how it works, you’d have a hard time explaining it. Is good this question is asked on TISTIP. So let’s figure it out! When Was IT Invented? First of all, have you ever wondered what SIM Stands For? It actually means subscriber identity modulRead more
You most likely use it every day, yet if someone
asked you how it works, you’d have a hard
time explaining it. Is good this question is asked on TISTIP. So let’s
figure it out!
First of all, have you ever wondered what
It actually means
subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module.
The first SIM card in the world was developed
in 1991 by the German company Giesecke & Devrient.
They sold 300 SIM cards to Radiolinja, a Finnish
wireless network operator. In 1992, they sold
the first GSM mobile phone with a SIM card;
it was a Nokia 1101. Today, it’s hard to
find a person who’s never used a SIM card.
– over 7 billion gadgets around the world
use them to make calls, send SMS and surf
the web. Experts predict this number is going
to grow to 20 billion in the near future.
The European Telecommunications Standards
Institute (ETSI) still holds the most SIM
patents, but other private phone companies
also have some important patents thanks to
which SIMs work.
The largest manufacturer
of SIM cards in the world is the Gemalto company, with headquarters in Amsterdam and 15,000 employees. They’re now working towards the mass production of SIMs for 5G networks.
The first SIM cards cost more than one dollar
each to manufacture. Today, they’re basically
worth a few cents apiece. But that price doesn’t cover design, development, inserting chips into plastic cards and shipping them.
A SIM card has unique identification information on it, like what mobile network it belongs to. It’s called an IMSI -International Mobile Subscriber Identity. This unique ID connects your phone number with your gadget. When someone is dialling your number, the call will go to the exact phone you have at the moment.
SIM also has its own memory. Even though it’s
really small – just 64 kilobytes – it
can store around 250 contacts and some SMS.
By the way, the same memory was in the Apollo Guidance Computer used for the first Moon landings.
If your SIM card is mobile, meaning you can
remove it and put it back into your phone
yourself, you can also use it on different
phones. This comes in handy when your own
gadget’s battery is dead, and you desperately
need to make a phone call from your number.
Technically it can, as a camera, or a device
that connects you to Wi-Fi, but not as a phone
to make calls or text someone. For the absolute majority of phones, a gadget without a SIM card is like a human without a brain. The
good news is, even if you seriously damaged
your phone – smashed your screen or bent the
casing – you could still use the same phone
number and keep your contacts. All it takes
is a SIM card transplantation.
A SIM card basically looks like a little piece
of plastic. It has an even smaller chip inside
that is its Microcontroller. It’s made out
of silicone and plated with gold or other
metals to help it keep contact with the phone.
The chip contains a processor, memory and
security circuits. Your mobile device reads
the chip when you stick the SIM in it. It
contains the operating system for the card,
can do some basic math, and stores important
information. This information is put on the
chip on the production line. The most basic
types of that information are your International Mobile Subscriber Identity and a 128-bit key called Ki (Key Identification). Those are basically your login and password in the mobile phone world. All messages from your phone to the network are in a secret code.
The key to encrypt and decrypt messages is also stored on the SIM card. This provides communication privacy. The SIM card chip also stores specific data, such as your card’s unique serial number, the name of your cellular carrier, your PIN (if you’ve ever wondered what it stands for, by the way, it’s your Personal Identification Number) to lock and unlock the phone. PUK code from the carrier to unblock the phone and much more. Even your contacts and last dialed numbers are there.
How SIM Card PUK code looks
This is a question of both privacy and security.
While it’s creepy to think someone can track
your physical location for their purposes,
it’s good to know your phone can be found
when it’s lost or stolen. And, it can also
be helpful when it concerns lost kids or elderly
people, for example. So, a SIM card can help
to establish your location, but it’s only
one player in the “find me” game. When
you insert a SIM in your cell phone, tablet,
or even car, and turn the device on, it starts
connecting to cell towers to catch the signal.
As you move around, your SIM works with the
towers nearest to you to provide the strongest
signal. All these towers have known physical
locations. When phone companies or the police use their algorithms to find out how strong the signal is from this or that tower, they can narrow down the search area significantly.
Services like “Find my phone” also use
WiFi data to know a more specific location.
Of course, it’ll only work when the WiFi
on your gadget is on. Add GPS information
to this, and you’ll get fairly accurate
data on any gadget’s whereabouts in real
time. GPS will only be handy in this situation
when you have cellular data enabled on your
plan or gadget. So if you want complete privacy, turn it off, along with WiFi, and tracking you down using information from your SIM alone will be a challenge.
SIM cards, like just about anything on this
planet, can get damaged or broken and don’t
last forever. You’ll be the first to know
when that happens, as your phone will inform
you the chip is defective. You won’t be
able to connect to your cellular provider
in this case. Water is unlikely to be the
reason for that damage, though, since basically
all new phones have sealed ports and jacks.
The SIMs themselves have always been waterproof.
Different sizes of SIM Card
The first SIM cards were around the same shape and size of a credit card. They worked fine with the first mobile phones, but as mobile technology evolved and phones got smaller, the SIM cards clearly needed improvement, too. Imagine fitting a credit card into an iPhone.
not the best idea, right? So fortunately, SIMs became smaller and more powerful at the same time.
A micro SIM card
First came the standard thumbnail-sized
SIMs. They were standard until 2010, when
the Micro-SIM became universal. But even that SIM still had too much useless plastic. Some people who upgraded their phones cut out the most important part with basic tools likes scissors It was pretty risky since damaging the chip even a bit could ruin it all.
A Nano SIM card
2012, Nano-SIMs came into play, which are,
in essence, just little chips with no extra
plastic around them. If you ever need to insert
a newer generation SIM in an older phone,
there are special adaptors for that.
The future of SIM cards The latest iPhone models give you an idea of what all SIM cards will be like in the future.
They’ll be “eSIM”s, which means
embedded SIM cards. Their size will be just
a fraction of a Nano-SIM. Forget the huge
pieces of plastic and scissors you used to
cut out the chips!. In fact, there’ll be
no physical SIM cards whatsoever – instead,
they’ll be tiny chips on your phone’s
logic board. The information on the chip will
be rewritable, so you’ll be able to change
your carrier with a few easy steps. eSIMs
will be cloud-based, super secure, super fast
and convenient to use. It’ll also be a win-win
situation for the manufactures: less distribution and installation costs, and better design with more free physical space on your gadget!.
Losing one slot on your phone is also great
because it will ensure extra protection from
water and dust getting inside.
So, the new iPhones already have two SIM-cards: one of the old school physical type and the other – an e-SIM that you can use with any
carrier you like.
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